• Rock Rousseau

HOW TO Select, Prepare, and Cook the Perfect Fish

Updated: Jan 19, 2020

Fish is a great source of protein and nutrients, and provides a great alternative to red meat or poultry. There are so many varieties of fish at your local market, so how do you choose the one you and your crew will enjoy the most? We break down the most common and preferred types of fish, and the various methods for preparing and cooking them.

Differences Between

Types of Fish


A huge species of fish with a very meaty texture. Large flakes of meat in the fish- similar to cod or shark but has a greater buttery taste which is uncommon in most white fish. Bass has very few bones within the meat.

Sea Bass fillets should smell like the sea. The signs of freshness in a whole fish are much easier to recognize. A whole fish should smell briny clean, not fishy. Gills are pink or red when the fish is fresh, turning brown, then gray, with age.

Some of the more common fish which are called Sea Bass include the following species:

  • Black Sea Bass is a true Bass, it inhabits the Atlantic Coast of the US.Blue

  • Spotted Sea Bass is a Grouper

  • Chilean Sea Bass is Patagonian Toothfish, not a Bass, and inhabits the waters around South America and the Antarctic.

  • European Sea Bass is a Bass found in European waters, the Mediterranean and Black Seas.

  • Giant Sea Bass is actually a Grouper, found on both sides of the Pacific from California to Mexico and around Japan

  • Hapu, or, Hapu’upu’u (Hawaiian Sea Bass) is a Grouper found only around the Hawaiian Islands.Japan Sea Bass – is actually a Sea Perch found from Japan to the South China Sea.

  • Peruvian Sea Bass is a Sea Perch found near Ecuador and Peru.

  • White Sea Bass is actually a Croaker, not a Bass, and inhabits the Pacific Coast from California to South America.

Preferred Cooking Methods:

Bake Broil, Grill, Poach, Sauté, Steam


Catfish have a distinctive taste; moist, sweet and mild flavored with firm flesh which has less flake than other whitefish. Since they do not have scales Catfish are not considered kosher.

Basa (Vietnamese catfish) has a milder flavor and a more delicate texture which may be more approachable for people who do not care for catfish. Swai have a coarser texture than Channel Catfish & Basa, with tan to beige colored flesh which cooks up white. They are also called Spotted Catfish , Willow Catfish, Fiddler, or Forked-tail Catfish.

Fresh meat of catfish is white to off-white with pinkish hues, an iridescent sheen and noticeable translucence. Avoid fillets that are reddish or yellowish. After cooking the flesh is white and opaque.

Preferred Cooking Methods:

Bake, Broil, Deep-Fry, Grill, or Sauté.

Click here for our recipe for Blackened Catfish with Cilantro Butter

Click here for our recipe for Double-Layer Fish Tacos in Cilantro Peach Salsa


Cod have a lean, mild flavor profile with large flakes and a tender-firm texture. Their flesh is an opaque white color when raw and remains white after cooking. Atlantic Cod are a little sweeter than Pacific Cod, with translucent white to pink-tinged flesh when raw which turns white when cooked. Both are less firm and less sweet tasting compared to Haddock.

Pacific Cod are brown or grayish colored with dark spots or patterns on their sides. Although some menus will specify “Atlantic” or “Pacific” Cod, the fish is generally marketed simply as “Cod” without designating specifically which species. Also known as Atlantic Cod, Pacific Cod, Alaskan Cod, True Cod, Gray Cod, Scrod (Cod which is under 2 1/2 Lbs).

Preferred Cooking Methods:

Bake, Broil, Deep-Fry, Sauté or Steam. Even though it is lean, this fish is forgiving during cooking and can be rather difficult to “over cook”.

Click here for our recipe for Smoked Fish Dip.

Click here for our recipe for Double-Layer Fish Tacos in Cilantro Peach Salsa


Flounder is sweet with a delicate texture, making it ideal for people who are trying to get into fish for the first time. Fillets should smell like the sea. The signs of freshness in a whole fish are much easier to recognize than that of fillets. The signs of freshness in both round-bodied fish such as rockfish or salmon and flatfish such as halibut or flounder are the same. Even whole fish should smell briny clean, not fishy.

To maximize the shelf life of cooked flounder for safety and quality, refrigerate the flounder in shallow airtight containers or wrap tightly with heavy-duty aluminum foil or plastic wrap. Properly stored, cooked flounder will last for 3 to 4 days in the refrigerator. The best way is to smell and look at the flounder: signs of bad flounder are a sour smell, dull color and slimy texture; discard any flounder with an off smell or appearance.

Preferred Cooking Methods:

Bake, Broil, Deep-Fry, Poach, Sauté, or Steam.

With a mild sweet flavor and delicate flaky texture, Flounder is a versatile, easy-to-prepare filet of fish. This firm-fleshed white fish can be baked, sautéed, stuffed, and poached. We recommend cooking this lean fish with butter, white wine, or your favorite sauce to maintain moisture and prevent your filet from drying out.

Click here for our recipe for Crab Stuffed Flounder


Grouper is a member of the serranidae family which also includes sea bass. Grouper is a lean, moist fish with a distinctive yet mild flavor, large flakes and a firm texture. The Red Grouper has a slightly sweeter, milder flavor than the Black Grouper and is considered to be the better of the two. Grouper’s flavor is a cross between Bass and Halibut. Also known as Red Grouper, Black Grouper, or Gag.

Preferred Cooking Methods:

Bake, Broil, Deep-Fry, Grill, or Steam. Grouper can be enjoyed many ways, but you must try a blackened grouper sandwich. Even though it is lean, this fish is forgiving during cooking and can be rather difficult to “over cook”.

Click here for our recipe for Broiled Grouper Parmesan.


Haddock are a northern Atlantic fish which are related to Cod yet are distinctly different. They have a mildly sweeter taste with lean white flesh and medium flakes with a texture which is firm yet tender after cooking. Haddock has a flavor similar to Halibut. They also have thin layer of connective tissue covering the flesh which Cod do not have. This connective tissue doesn’t affect the taste or texture, but is a good way to differentiate Cod fillets from Haddock fillets.

Haddock are a dark purple-gray color from the back fading down to the black lateral line, and silvery-gray below the lateral line accented with pinkish reflections. They usually are very uniform in color, but occasionally may have some mottled markings. Also known as Scrod (which is also a name for small Cod), Finnan Haddie, Snapper Haddock.

Preferred Cooking Methods:

Bake, Broil, Deep-Fry, Poach, Sauté or Smoke. It does not salt well, but drying and smoking preparations work well.


Halibut is a lean fish with mild, sweet tasting white flesh, large flakes and a firm but tender texture. Because of its leanness this fish becomes dried-out if overcooked. Frozen halibut is denser and less moist than fresh halibut and is easier to overcook. when cooked right, the fish tender and moist. 

Also known as Pacific Halibut, Alaska Halibut, Cow of the Sea, Hippos of the Sea, Chicken Halibut (under 20 lbs), Hirame (Sushi).

Preferred Cooking Methods:

Bake, Broil, Deep-Fry, Grill, Poach, Sauté, Steam, and Sushi. The most common methods of cooking this fish is to grill or sauté, or battered and fried.


The hogfish is characterized by a large, laterally compressed body shape. It possesses a very elongated snout which it uses to search for crustaceans buried in the sediment. This very long "pig-like" snout and its rooting behavior give the hogfish its name.

Hogfish is one of the most delicious fish in Florida. A delicate white fish that is thin and cooks quickly. The meat has a mild flavor and sweet undertones. If you order it, it will usually be shipped fresh, never frozen. To ensure that the fish is fresh, smell it, if it has a fishy odor, then it is not fresh. The meat of hogfish is tender, not tough and feels like it is melting once you put it in your mouth. It holds more moisture when cooking than other fish. Their ability to convert cholesterol into pure fat adds to the oils and moisture in its flesh.

Common names in other languages include bodiao-de-pluma (Portuguese), doncella de pluma (Spanish), jaqueton blanca (Spanish), labre capitaine (French), odynczyk (Polish), ornefisk (Danish), pargo gallo (Spanish), and pez perro (Spanish)

Preferred Cooking Methods:

Broil, Bake, Deep-Fry, or Sauté. It will marry and enhance any flavor you introduce. Lemon, tomatoes, and basil all work well with Hogfish.


Japanese Sushi Chefs relish the Atlantic Mackerel due to its distinct personality. For a savory taste of the mackerels, you need to prepare them fresh. Oily, dark flesh fishes lose their freshness quickly to take a strong ‘fishy’ taste. It has a strong flavor similar to that of salmon. The flesh is firm and oilier than that of tilapia or cod. You can prepare it in many ways not just making sushi out of it.

You can tell if mackerel is fresh, the color of the flesh is off-white. This is slightly darker than the color of flesh of tilapia or cod.